The Information-Thermodynamics Unveils Essential Knowledge

On Information-Thermodynamics Basis Standard Statistical Tests to Estimate Differential Methylation Cannot Control Random Noise and Can Lead to Misleading Results

A. Standard statistical tests to estimate differential methylation at a given cytosine site can be applied only if the micro-thermodynamic system around the side behaves like an isolated thermodynamic system. However, this assumption does not hold in living organisms, since cells are dissipative open systems operating far from the thermodynamic equilibrium.

B. Due to the Second Law of Thermodynamics, thermal fluctuations, and Brownian motion result in the continuous entropy generation inside the cells in all the biochemical processes. The best approach is to assume that the micro-thermodynamic system around chromosomes behaves as a closed thermodynamic system, where the overall mass of methyl-groups remains constant (excess of methyltransferases' substrate), but the system interchange energy with the surrounded environment.

Why Information-Thermodynamics?

At this point, to those who would insist in the other way around, it is healthy to do mention a famous thought from the British astrophysicist Arthur Eddington (1882–1944):

If someone points out to you that your pet theory of the universe is in disagreement with Maxwell's equations—then so much the worse for Maxwell's equations. If it is found to be contradicted by observation—well, these experimentalists do bungle things sometimes. But if your theory is found to be against the second law of thermodynamics I can give you no hope; there is nothing for it but to collapse in deepest humiliation.

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